Integrated Writing. TPO 9
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University: Chongqing University
December 22, 2020 at 8:22 am
Integrated Writing. TPO 9
The lecturer, while admitting that oil used by internal-combustion engines is finite and burning oil harms the environment, offers three explanations for why the reading is overly optimistic about fuel-cell engines and why hydrogen will not solve these problems of internal-combustion engines.
First, one weakness of internal-combustion engines mentioned by the passage is their reliance on petroleum, a finite resource. The lecturer, however, claims fuel-cell engines will not solve this problem since hydrogen is not as easily available as the reading believes. Although hydrogen is present in common substances like water, it is not directly usable. To be used in engines, hydrogen needs to be in the pure liquid state, but pure liquid hydrogen is a highly artificial substance difficult to produce and store. For instance, it needs to be kept under 253 celsius. Using such cooling technology makes fuel-cell engines neither practical nor easily available.
Second, the reading states that hydrogen-based fuel cells are appealing since they will resolve many pollution problems. However, the listening believes otherwise, claiming that pollution will not be solved as purification, the process of creating hydrogen through gas or water, produces much pollution. This is because much energy is needed to power this process, and this energy is produced by burning oil and coal. In brief, while cars burning hydrogen do not create pollution, the factories generating hydrogen does create pollution.
Third, the reading maintains that soon, fuel-cell engines will be economically competitive, which is again challenged by the professor. He does not think there will be cost savings since fuel-cell engines are expensive. The reason is that platinum, a rare and expensive metal, is a component of such an engine. Without platinum, the chemical reactions allowing hydrogen to produce electricity will not happen. Also, efforts to use cheaper metals as alternatives have been unsuccessful so far.Administrator
University: University of Wisconsin
January 4, 2021 at 10:43 pm
- About 30% of the sentences exceed 20 words. Simplify or split them.
- About 25% of the sentences are passive; convert them into their active counterparts.
I will send you screenshots to illustrate specific problems/errors.
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